Adverse drug reactions refer to harmful reactions that have nothing to do with the purpose of medication or accidentally occur under normal usage and dosage of qualified drugs.
Although the safety of current commonly used clinical contrast mediums, whether it is iodine contrast medium or gadolinium contrast medium, is already very good, adverse reaction still exists. Thus, we must be very vigilant and handle the side effects in time when using them.
The reasons for the adverse reactions of contrast mediums are complex and have not been fully understood so far.
First of all, the structure, composition, technology, and unknown components of the contrast medium are the prerequisites for the adverse reactions of the contrast medium. The improvement of the contrast medium is also in progress. Take ionic and nonionic contrast media comparison for example, ionic iodine contrast mediums with a higher incidence of adverse reactions have been basically replaced by safer non-ionic iodine contrast mediums. Surely, some detailed mechanisms of adverse reactions have not yet been fully elucidated, and further research and exploration are necessary.
On the other hand, with the same medicine and the same dosage, only a small proportion of contrast media products users will have adverse reactions, indicating that the patient's physical factors play an important role in the mechanism of adverse reactions. Factors related to the patient's physique include (not limited to) age, allergic physique, previous history of adverse reactions to contrast mediums, renal impairment, taking nephrotoxic drugs, dehydration, emotional and psychological factors. These factors are not all contraindications to the use of contrast mediums, but they are reminders that require extra vigilance. Please consult a professional doctor for details.
Adverse reactions can be divided into two categories, one is a toxic reaction, which is dose-dependent; the other is an allergic reaction, which is not dose-dependent.
The general response principle for adverse reactions of contrast mediums is symptomatic treatment. As the contrast-medium-use department, it must be equipped with rescue supplies and drugs. And it should prepare a treatment plan and organize all relevant personnel to conduct adverse reaction treatment drills.